Hah…. I knew I needed some kip…
Posts archived in Attachment
“We are inherently attracted to a specific set of characteristics, including large, symmetrical heads, large eyes, small mouths and small noses,” according to Jeffrey Kurland, associate professor of biological anthropology and human development. But why do almost all humans find this particular set of features so appealing?”
Suggested answer here…
Disturbingly non-cute babies here…
“This is a resource to support the teaching of the new AQA A Level Psychology specification introduced for September 2008. This unit specifically supports PSYA1 and consists of most if not all possible questions with models of appropriate answers”.
No card from your loved one ?
Feeling rejected this Valentine’s Day?
Maybe it’s you….. maybe you’re just too clingy….. check out your style with the LOVE QUIZ
Or maybe it isn’t you…. maybe it’s them. But don’t be too hard on your loved one if they’ve forgotten you. It’s not their fault they’re an affectionless psychopath.
… I blame the parents….
I got sent details of a lovely new website a while back. It has test questions, resources, filmclips, a shrine to Sigmund Freud… what more could you want?
Less pleasingly, it carries on the preoccupation with cats that has so bedevilled psychology of late. I appreciate the marketing genius of designating a textbook ‘The Cat Book’ - it is, after all, the first word anyone learns to spell, so brand recognition is pretty much guaranteed, but I am, it must be said, generally troubled by catowners. Such folk are only encouraged by the internet. I saw one post something online the other day along the lines of: ‘Love your cat, they only live to love’…… tell that to your local songbird population.
I think it’s important to point out to folk that YOUR CAT DOES NOT LOVE YOU. Indeed, it’s possible to establish online that your cat hates you. Go and have a look. You may question the validity of this questionnaire as a research tool (and if you’ve finished unit one, you should be rather good at this), but let’s face it, is it any easier to establish if a baby loves you?
(pic: A cat blunders into the Ames Room)
Just a quick evaluation nugget for you. Fraley and Spieker (2003) have found that classifying infants by type may not be accurate. The researchers looked at data recorded for over 1000 children involved in the NICHD study. The data had been collected from observations made in the strange situation. The re-analysis showed that variations in patterns was largely continuous i.e. children didn’t possess a cluster of characteristics typical of one particular category. Instead they differed along various dimensions such as response to mother’s return.This challenges any research which has categorised children as secure, insecure-resistant or insecure-avoidant because such exclusive categories don’t represent reality, according to this research. Fraley, R. C., & Spieker, S. J. (2003). Are infant attachment patterns continuously or categorically distributed? A taxometric analysis of strange situation behavior. Developmental Psychology, 39, 387-404.
In the AS Complete Companion, the summaries at the end of chapter 2 (page 58), the text regarding the weaknesses of learning theory says that ‘Schaffer and Emerson (1964) found infants were most attached to the adult who fed them’. This is wrong, as the text earlier in the chapter states that they found that infants were not necessarily most attached to the person that fed them – a more important factor in the development of attachment was the responsiveness of the adult (see page 35).
John Bowlby proposed, in his theory of attachment, that humans are ‘hardwired’ to respond to social releasers from infants – they can’t help but respond to an infant’s smiles or cries of distress and this responsiveness is in our genes. New research has provided evidence of the brain circuitry involved in this response. Dr. Madoka Noriuchi and his colleagues in Tokyo (2008, abstract) used a brain scanning technique (fMRI) to look at how mothers’ brains respond to infants who are happy or upset/crying. Certain areas were active when the mothers observed their own infant’s smiles and cries as opposed to other infants (in particular it was areas in the cerebral cortex and limbic system). Smiling and crying are attachment behaviours – they elicit caregiving from the infant’s mother figure and ensure safety for the infant. This research shows us the neurophysiological basis for the attachment response (maternal love) and supports the view that such a response is innate – because there is a specialised area in the brain that responds.
Psychology: The Online Companion